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Wave3000 Example #2:

Ultrasound Propagation Through Bone

Shown below is a 3D-rendered image of a human finger bone using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT).

The figure below shows the 3D propagation of ultrasound through a short length of cortical bone taken from the midshaft of the finger bone above. The signal is a 1 MHz Gaussian shaped pulse, which propagates from right to left. The materials are bone and blood. As may be seen there is a great deal of scattering of the wavefront, but the initially arriving wavefront emerges at the other side in a somewhat coherent way. Note that receivers can be defined anywhere within or on the object, and the data stored to disk for subsequent processing and analysis.

Another example demonstrates propagation through trabecular bone taken from the human heel bone, shown below. This image data was also acquired using micro-CT. The core is approximately 1 cm in diameter and 1.2 cm in length. The propagation is carried out again with a 1 MHz broadband pulse, and the source is placed on the face at one end of the cylinder. Blood is assumed to fill all of the pore spaces and to surround the core as well.

An animated graphic of the propagating wave is shown in the figure below. (Note that the core has been rotated so that the left face is now on the left side.) As may be seen the wave appears to be scattered greatly by the trabeculae. The images of the propagating wave seem to be an "inverse" image of the bone (i.e., the pore spaces); this is likely due to the fact that the displacements are much larger in the pores (fluid) relative to the displacements in the bone material per se.

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